At the end of 1930 Escher returned home from southern Italy, defeated and depressed. He could not sell prints and suffered both physically and financially. He doubted his own skills and questioned whether he should continue to work as an artist.


The Dutch art historian G.J. Hoogewerff suggested to Escher that he make an emblemata, a collection of il- lustrated four-line epigrams with Latin mottoes. Hoogewerff, under the pseudonym A.E. Drijfhout, provided many of the epigrams and subsequently praised Escher’s work in an article. The stimulation that Hoogewerff provided helped encourage Escher to press onward with his career.

The highly detailed prints are black and white alone. Escher created the illusion of gray tones by varying the width and proximity of the white lines. Notice t